Diabetes Mellitus is basically a metabolic disorder involving carbohydrates. Diabetes can be taken as an unceasing heterogeneous set of disorders.
These disorders are caused due to increased glucose sugar levels in the blood. The patients suffering from these disorders are not able to metabolize sugar within their body.
Diabetes Mellitus is categorized in two important divisions. These categories are made on the basis of an individual’s ability or response to producing insulin. The categories are:
- IDDM or Insulin Dependent Type I Diabetes
- NIDDM or Non-Insulin Dependent Type II Diabetes
The other common diabetes mellitus type is Gestational Diabetes.
IDDM or Insulin Dependent Type I Diabetes is a kind of autoimmune disorder. The immune system of an individual attack and even destroys the β-cells of the pancreas mistakenly. The patients suffering from IDDM or Insulin Dependent Type I Diabetes have minuscule or no insulin. They need to take insulin on a regular basis.
The other name of this autoimmune disorder is Juvenile diabetes. It occurs at a frequency of 5 to 10% of diabetic patients. Children and adults within the age of 40 are the prime victims of this disease. It generally starts in young adults under 20 years of age.
NIDDM or Non-Insulin Dependent Type II Diabetes Mellitus comprises a number of dysfunctions set apart by hyperglycemia. The dysfunctions result from resistance to insulin, inappropriate or excessive glucagon secretion and insufficient insulin secretion.
This type of Diabetes is also linked with a wide assortment of microvascular, neuropathic and microvascular complications. Around 2% to 5% patients with Type II diabetic Mellitus acquire it early in life.
This is before 25 years of age. Acquiring type II diabetes is called Maturity Onset Diabetes of the Young or MODY.
The other name for this dysfunction is Adult onset diabetes mellitus. It occurs at a frequency of 90% to 95% of the patients with diabetes. It generally occurs in people above the age of 40.
Lifestyle changes come as a boon for treating type II diabetes. Practicing healthy eating and sleeping habits and having nutritious meals can always help in treating the problem. It is also important to avoid alcohol and cigarettes.
This type of diabetes mellitus generally occurs during pregnancy. This means that pregnant women are always at an increased risk of developing gestational diabetes mellitus. It occurs on a large scale in Latinos, Americans, and women with a family history of diabetes.
However, this type of diabetes mellitus generally disappears post delivery. However, there are chances that it might develop later in a woman’s life. The most common signs of gestational diabetes mellitus include excessive thirst, dry skin, frequent urination and weight loss.
Sores that do not heal very fast and more infections than normal are other signs of gestational diabetes mellitus.