Different Types of Diabetes Mellitus

Diabetes Mellitus Reviews

Diabetes Mellitus is basically a metabolic disorder involving carbohydrates. Diabetes can be taken as an unceasing heterogeneous set of disorders.

These disorders are caused due to increased glucose sugar levels in the blood. The patients suffering from these disorders are not able to metabolize sugar within their body.

Different Types of Diabetes Mellitus

Diabetes Mellitus is categorized in two important divisions. These categories are made on the basis of an individual’s ability or response to producing insulin. The categories are:

  • IDDM or Insulin Dependent Type I Diabetes
  • NIDDM or Non-Insulin Dependent Type II Diabetes

The other common diabetes mellitus type is Gestational Diabetes.

Causes

  • Diabetes Mellitus occurs because of abnormal glucose levels in the blood. The disturbance of an individual’s metabolism is because of resistance or deficiency of insulin. Insulin is a hormone that regulates glucose metabolism of an individual’s body. It is manufactured by β-cells in the pancreas.

  • IDDM or Insulin Dependent Type I Diabetes Mellitus occurs because of the inadequacy or deficiency of insulin. IDDM is basically an autoimmune disorder. The own immune system of the body destroys the β-cells in the pancreas mistakenly. This results in the disturbance of insulin level.

  • NIDDM or Non-Insulin Dependent Type II Diabetes Mellitus is because of the body’s cell insensitivity to insulin action.

  • Gestational Diabetes Mellitus occurs during pregnancy.

Everything about IDDM or Insulin Dependent Type I Diabetes Mellitus

IDDM or Insulin Dependent Type I Diabetes is a kind of autoimmune disorder. The immune system of an individual attack and even destroys the β-cells of the pancreas mistakenly. The patients suffering from IDDM or Insulin Dependent Type I Diabetes have minuscule or no insulin. They need to take insulin on a regular basis.

The other name of this autoimmune disorder is Juvenile diabetes. It occurs at a frequency of 5 to 10% of diabetic patients. Children and adults within the age of 40 are the prime victims of this disease. It generally starts in young adults under 20 years of age.

Causes: Attack of Autoantibodies, viral infections, and genetic basis, generally activate an autoimmune response. The T-cells attack the pancreas and completely destroy the β-cells. This causes genetic variations in chromosome 11 locus- the location of the insulin gene and polymorphism.

Symptoms: The common symptoms of IDDM or Insulin Dependent Type I Diabetes Mellitus include increased appetite and heavy thirst. Other symptoms include vomiting, nausea, dehydration, frequent urination, diabetic ketoacidosis, blurred vision and weight loss. Frequent infections of the urinary tract, vagina and skin are other common symptoms.

Diagnosis: Tests for examining the glycosylated hemoglobin level and tests for examining glucose tolerance.

Treatment: Maintaining the sugar level of the body. Having a balanced diet and insulin injections. Regular exercise and lifestyle changes can also help in treating Type I Diabetes. Lifestyle changes can work wonders in treating this type of diabetes. Having meals on time, staying hydrated and refraining from the intake of alcohol can be of good help.

Everything about NIDDM or Insulin Dependent Type II Diabetes Mellitus

NIDDM or Non-Insulin Dependent Type II Diabetes Mellitus comprises a number of dysfunctions set apart by hyperglycemia. The dysfunctions result from resistance to insulin, inappropriate or excessive glucagon secretion and insufficient insulin secretion.

This type of Diabetes is also linked with a wide assortment of microvascular, neuropathic and microvascular complications. Around 2% to 5% patients with Type II diabetic Mellitus acquire it early in life.

This is before 25 years of age. Acquiring type II diabetes is called Maturity Onset Diabetes of the Young or MODY.

The other name for this dysfunction is Adult onset diabetes mellitus. It occurs at a frequency of 90% to 95% of the patients with diabetes. It generally occurs in people above the age of 40.

Causes: Insufficient insulin secretion and insulin resistance are the two main causes of type II diabetes. It generally occurs in overweight people who do not have the ability to increase insulin secretion. Increasing insulin secretion can help people in compensating for insulin resistance.

Symptoms: Some common symptoms of type II diabetes mellitus include blurred vision, weight loss and Paresthesia in the lower extremity. Polyphagia polydipsia and yeast infections are other common symptoms.

Diagnosis: Tests are conducted for examining glycosylated hemoglobin level. Hg Glucose tolerance examination and Sustained blood pressure >135/80.

]Treatment: Type II diabetes can easily be treated by having a controlled diet and by practicing regular exercise. There are glucose-lowering therapies that a patient can undergo. Weight loss and lifestyle changes can also treat type II diabetes.

Lifestyle changes come as a boon for treating type II diabetes. Practicing healthy eating and sleeping habits and having nutritious meals can always help in treating the problem. It is also important to avoid alcohol and cigarettes.

Everything about Gestational Diabetes Mellitus

This type of diabetes mellitus generally occurs during pregnancy. This means that pregnant women are always at an increased risk of developing gestational diabetes mellitus. It occurs on a large scale in Latinos, Americans, and women with a family history of diabetes.

However, this type of diabetes mellitus generally disappears post delivery. However, there are chances that it might develop later in a woman’s life. The most common signs of gestational diabetes mellitus include excessive thirst, dry skin, frequent urination and weight loss.

Sores that do not heal very fast and more infections than normal are other signs of gestational diabetes mellitus.

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